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Sistemas Digitales Ronald Tocci Pdf Download


2. If you purchased this book within the United States or Canadayou should be aware thatit has been wrongfully imported without theapproval of the Publisher or the Author.Director ofDevelopment:Vern AnthonyEditorial Assistant: Lara DimmickProductionEditor: Stephen C. RobbProduction Coordination: PeggyHood,TechBooks/GTSDesign Coordinator: Diane Y. ErnsbergerCoverDesigner: Jason MooreCover Art: Getty OneProduction Manager: MattOttenwellerMarketing Manager: Ben LeonardThis book was set inTimesEuropa Roman by TechBooks/GTSYork, PA Campus. It wasprintedand bound by Courier Kendallville, Inc.The cover was printed byPhoenixColor Corp.MultiSIM is a trademark of ElectronicsWorkbench.Altera is a trademark and service mark of AlteraCorporation in the United States andother countries. Alteraproducts are the intellectual property of Altera Corporation andareprotected by copyright laws and one or more U.S. and foreignpatents and patent ap-plications.Copyright 2007 by PearsonEducation, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.PearsonPrentice Hall. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States ofAmerica.Thispublication is protected by Copyright and permissionshould be obtained from the pub-lisherprior to any prohibitedreproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmissionin anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or likewise.For information regarding permission(s),write to: Rights and Permissions Department.Pearson Prentice Hallis a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.Pearson is a registeredtrademark of Pearson plcPrentice Hall is a registered trademark ofPearson Education, Inc.Pearson Education Ltd. Pearson EducationAustralia Pty. LimitedPearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd.Pearson Education North Asia Ltd.Pearson Education Canada, Ltd.Pearson Educacin de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.Pearson EducationJapanPearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd.Pearson Education, UpperSaddle River,New Jersey10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1ISBN: 0-13-173969-7 3.Digital SystemsPrinciples and Applications 4. DigitalSystemsPrinciples and ApplicationsRonald J. TocciMonroe CommunityCollegeNeal S.WidmerPurdue UniversityGregory L. MossPurdueUniversityTENTH EDITIONUpper Saddle River, New JerseyColumbus, Ohio5. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataTocci, RonaldJ.Digital systems : principles and applications / Ronald J.Tocci,Neal S.Widmer, Gregory L. Moss.10th ed.p. cm.Includesbibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-13-172579-31. DigitalelectronicsTextbooks. I. Widmer, Neal S. II. Moss, Gregory L.III.Title.TK7868.D5T62 2007621.381dc222005035835Director ofDevelopment:Vern AnthonyEditorial Assistant: Lara DimmickProductionEditor: Stephen C. RobbProduction Coordination: Peggy Hood,TechBooks/GTSDesign Coordinator: Diane Y. ErnsbergerCover Designer:Jason MooreCover Art: Getty OneProduction Manager: MattOttenwellerMarketing Manager: Ben LeonardThis book was set inTimesEuropa Roman by TechBooks/GTSYork, PA Campus. It wasprintedand bound by Courier Kendallville, Inc. The cover was printed byPhoenixColor Corp.MultiSIM is a trademark of ElectronicsWorkbench.Altera is a trademark and service mark of AlteraCorporation in the United States andother countries. Alteraproducts are the intellectual property of Altera Corporation andareprotected by copyright laws and one or more U.S. and foreignpatents and patent ap-plications.Copyright 2007, 2004, 2001, 1998,1995, 1991, 1988, 1985, 1980, 1970 by PearsonEducation, Inc., UpperSaddle River, New Jersey 07458. Pearson Prentice Hall. Allrightsreserved. Printed in the United States of America. Thispublication is protected byCopyright and permission should beobtained from the publisher prior to any prohibitedreproduction,storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or byany means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orlikewise. For information regardingpermission(s), write to: Rightsand Permissions Department.Pearson Prentice Hall is a trademark ofPearson Education, Inc.Pearson is a registered trademark of PearsonplcPrentice Hall is a registered trademark of Pearson Education,Inc.Pearson Education Ltd. Pearson Education Australia Pty.LimitedPearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd. Pearson EducationNorth Asia Ltd.Pearson Education Canada, Ltd. Pearson Educacin deMexico, S.A. de C.V.Pearson EducationJapan Pearson EducationMalaysia, Pte. Ltd.10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1ISBN: 0-13-172579-3 6. Toyou, Cap, for loving me for so long; and for the millionand oneways you brighten the lives of everyone you touch.RJTTo my wife,Kris, and our children, John, Brad, Blake,Matt, and Katie: thelenders of their rights to my time andattention that this revisionmight be accomplished.NSWTo my family, Marita, David, and Ryan.GLM7. viiPREFACEThis book is a comprehensive study of the principlesand techniques of mod-erndigital systems. It teaches thefundamental principles of digital systemsand covers thoroughly bothtraditional and modern methods of applying dig-italdesign anddevelopment techniques, including how to manage asystems-levelproject.The book is intended for use in two- andfour-year programs intechnology, engineering, and computer science.Although a background inbasic electronics is helpful, most of thematerial requires no electronicstraining. Portions of the text thatuse electronics concepts can be skippedwithout adversely affectingthe comprehension of the logic principles.General ImprovementsThetenth edition of Digital Systems reflects the authors views ofthedirection of modern digital electronics. In industry today, wesee the impor-tanceof getting a product to market very quickly.Theuse of modern designtools, CPLDs, and FPGAs allows engineers toprogress from concept to func-tionalsilicon very quickly.Microcontrollers have taken over many applica-tionsthat once wereimplemented by digital circuits, and DSP has beenused to replacemany analog circuits. It is amazing that microcontrollers,DSP, andall the necessary glue logic can now be consolidated onto asingleFPGA using a hardware description language with advanceddevelopmenttools. Todays students must be exposed to these moderntools, even in anintroductory course. It is every educatorsresponsibility to find the bestway to prepare graduates for thework they will encounter in their profes-sionallives.The standardSSI and MSI parts that have served as bricks and mortarin thebuilding of digital systems for nearly 40 years are now nearingobso-lescence.Many of the techniques that have been taught overthat time havefocused on optimizing circuits that are built fromthese outmoded devices.The topics that are uniquely suited toapplying the old technology but do notcontribute to anunderstanding of the new technology must be removed from 8. viiiPREFACEthe curriculum. From an educational standpoint, however,these small ICs dooffer a way to study simple digital circuits, andthe wiring of circuits usingbreadboards is a valuable pedagogicexercise.They help to solidify conceptssuch as binary inputs andoutputs, physical device operation, and practicallimitations, usinga very simple platform. Consequently, we have chosen tocontinue tointroduce the conceptual descriptions of digital circuits andtooffer examples using conventional standard logic parts. Forinstructors whocontinue to teach the fundamentals using SSI and MSIcircuits, this editionretains those qualities that have made thetext so widely accepted in thepast. Many hardware design tools evenprovide an easy-to-use design entrytechnique that will employ thefunctionality of conventional standard partswith the flexibility ofprogrammable logic devices. A digital design can bedescribed usinga schematic drawing with pre-created building blocks thatareequivalent to conventional standard parts, which can be compiledandthen programmed directly into a target PLD with the addedcapability ofeasily simulating the design within the samedevelopment tool.We believe that graduates will actually apply theconcepts presented inthis book using higher-level descriptionmethods and more complex program-mabledevices.The major shift inthe field is a greater need to understand thedescription methods,rather than focusing on the architecture of an actualde-vice.Software tools have evolved to the point where there islittle need for con-cernabout the inner workings of the hardwarebut much more need to focuson what goes in, what comes out, and howthe designer can describe what thedevice is supposed to do.We alsobelieve that graduates will be involved withprojects usingstate-of-the-art design tools and hardware solutions.This bookoffers a strategic advantage for teaching the vital new topicofhardware description languages to beginners in the digitalfield.VHDL isundisputedly an industry standard language at thistime, but it is also verycomplex and has a steep learning curve.Beginning students are often dis-couragedby the rigorousrequirements of various data types, and they strug-glewithunderstanding edge-triggered events in VHDL. Fortunately,Alteraoffers AHDL, a less demanding language that uses the samebasic conceptsas VHDL but is much easier for beginners to master.So, instructors can optto use AHDL to teach introductory studentsor VHDL for more advancedclasses. This edition offers more than 40AHDL examples, more than 40VHDL examples, and many examples ofsimulation testing. All of these designfiles are available on theenclosed CD-ROM.Alteras latest software development system isQuartus II. The MAXPLUS II software that has been used for manyyears is still popular in indus-tryand is supported by Altera. Itsmain drawback is that it does not programthe latest devices. Thematerial in this text does not attempt to teach apar-ticularhardware platform or the details of using a softwaredevelopment sys-tem.New revisions of software tools appear sofrequently that a textbookcannot remain current if it tries todescribe all of the details.We have triedto show what this tool cando, rather than train the reader how to use it. How-ever,tutorialshave been included on the accompanying CD-ROM that makeit easy tolearn either software package.The AHDL and VHDL examplesarecompatible with either Quartus or MAXPLUS systems. The timingsimula-tionswere developed using MAXPLUS but can also be done withQuartus.Many laboratory hardware options are available to users ofthis book. Anumber of CPLD and FPGA development boards areavailable for studentsto use in the laboratory. There are severalearlier generation boards similarto Alteras UP2 that containMAX7000 family CPLDs. A more recent exampleof an available board isthe UP3 board from Alteras university program (seeFigure P-l),which contains a larger FPGA from the Cyclone family. An even 9.PREFACE ixnewer board from Altera is called the DE2 board (seeFigure P-2), which hasa powerful new 672-pin Cyclone II FPGA and anumber of basic features suchas switches, LEDs, and displays aswell as many additional features for moreadvanced projects. Moredevelopment boards are entering the market everyyear, and many arebecoming very affordable.These boards, along withpow-erfuleducational software, offer an excellent way to teach anddemonstratethe practical implementation of the concepts presentedin this text.The most significant improvements in the tenth editionare found in Chap-ter7. Although asynchronous (ripple) countersprovide a good introduction tosequential circuits, the real worlduses synchronous counter circuits. Chapter7 and subsequent exampleshave been rewritten to emphasize synchronouscounter ICs and includetechniques for analysis, cascading, and using HDL todescribe them.A section has also been added to improve the coverage ofstatemachines and the HDL features used to describe them. Otherimprovementsinclude analysis techniques for combinational circuits,expanded coverage of555 timer applications, and better coverage ofsigned binary numbers.FIGURE P-1 Alteras UP3developmentboard.FIGURE P-2 Alteras DE2development board. 10. x PREFACEOurapproach to HDL and PLDs gives instructors several options:1. TheHDL material can be skipped entirely without affectingthecontinuity of the text.2. HDL can be taught as a separate topicby skipping the materialinitially and then going back to the lastsections of Chapters 3, 4, 5,6, 7, and 9 and then covering Chapter10.3. HDL and the use of PLDs can be covered as the courseunfoldschapter by chapterand woven into the fabric of thelecture/labexperience.Among all specific hardware descriptionlanguages, VHDL is clearly theindustry standard and is most likelyto be used by graduates in their careers.We have always felt thatit is a bold proposition, however, to try to teach VHDLin anintroductory course.The nature of the syntax, the subtledistinctions inobject types, and the higher levels of abstractioncan pose obstacles for abeginner. For this reason, we have includedAlteras AHDL as the recom-mendedintroductory language for freshmancourses.We have also includedVHDL as the recommended language formore advanced classes or introduc-torycourses offered to moremature students.We do not recommend trying tocover both languagesin the same course. Sections of the text that cover thespecifics ofa language are clearly designated with a color bar in themargin.The HDL code figures are set in a color to match thecolor-coded text expla-nation.The reader can focus only on thelanguage of his or her choice and skipthe other. Obviously, we haveattempted to appeal to the diverse interests ofour market, but webelieve we have created a book that can be used in multi-plecoursesand will serve as an excellent reference after graduation.ChapterOrganizationIt is a rare instructor who uses the chapters of atextbook in the sequence inwhich they are presented. This book waswritten so that, for the most part,each chapter builds on previousmaterial, but it is possible to alter the chap-tersequencesomewhat. The first part of Chapter 6 (arithmetic operations)can becovered right after Chapter 2 (number systems), although this willleadto a long interval before the arithmetic circuits of Chapter 6are encountered.Much of the material in Chapter 8 (ICcharacteristics) can be covered earlier(e.g., after Chapter 4 or 5)without creating any serious problems.This book can be used eitherin a one-term course or in a two-term se-quence.In a one-termcourse, limits on available class hours might requireomitting sometopics. Obviously, the choice of deletions will depend onfac-torssuch as program or course objectives and studentbackground. A list ofsections and chapters that can be deleted withminimal disruption follows: Chapter 1: All Chapter 2: Section 6Chapter 3: Sections 1520 Chapter 4: Sections 7, 1013 Chapter 5:Sections 3, 2327 Chapter 6: Sections 57, 11, 13, 1623 Chapter 7:Sections 914, 2124 Chapter 8: Sections 10, 1419 11. PREFACExiFIGURE P-3 Letters denotecategories of problems,and asterisksindicate thatcorresponding solutionsare provided at the end ofthetext. Chapter 9: Sections 5, 9, 1520 Chapter 10: All Chapter 11:Sections 7, 1417 Chapter 12: Sections 1721 Chapter 13: AllPROBLEMSETS This edition includes six categories of problems: basic(B),challenging (C), troubleshooting (T), new (N), design (D), and HDL(H).Undesignated problems are considered to be of intermediatedifficulty, be-tweenbasic and challenging. Problems for whichsolutions are printed in theback of the text or on the enclosedCD-ROM are marked with an asterisk (seeFigure P-3).PROJECTMANAGEMENT AND SYSTEM-LEVEL DESIGN Several real-worldexamples areincluded in Chapter 10 to describe the techniques usedto manageprojects. These applications are generally familiar to moststu-dentsstudying electronics, and the primary example of a digitalclock is fa-miliarto everyone. Many texts talk about top-downdesign, but this textdemonstrates the key features of this approachand how to use the moderntools to accomplish it.DATA SHEETS TheCD-ROM containing Texas Instruments data sheetsthat accompanied theninth edition has been removed.The information thatwas included onthis CD-ROM is now readily available online.SIMULATION FILES Thisedition also includes simulation files that can beloaded intoElectronics Workbench Multisim. The circuit schematics ofmany ofthe figures throughout the text have been captured as input filesforthis popular simulation tool. Each file has some way ofdemonstrating the oper-ationof the circuit or reinforcing aconcept. In many cases, instruments are at-tachedto the circuit andinput sequences are applied to demonstrate theconcept presented inone of the figures of the text.These circuits can then bemodifiedas desired to expand on topics or create assignments and tutorials12. xii PREFACEfor students. All figures in the text that have acorresponding simulation fileon the CD-ROM are identified by theicon shown in Figure P-4.IC TECHNOLOGY This new edition continuesthe practice begun with thelast three editions of giving moreprominence to CMOS as the principal ICtechnology in small- andmedium-scale integration applications. This depthof coverage hasbeen accomplished while retaining the substantial coverageof TTLlogic.Specific ChangesThe major changes in the topical coverage arelisted here. Chapter 1. Many explanations covering digital/analogissues have beenupdated and improved. Chapter 2. The octal numbersystem has been removed and the Graycode has been added. A completestandard ASCII code table has been in-cluded,along with newexamples that relate ASCII characters, hex rep-resentation,andcomputer object code transfer files. New material onframing ASCIIcharacters for asynchronous data transfer has also beenadded.Chapter 3. Along with some new practical examples of logicfunctions,the major improvement in Chapter 3 is a new analysistechnique usingtables that evaluate intermediate points in thelogic circuit. Chapter 4.Very few changes were necessary in Chapter4. Chapter 5.A new section covers digital pulses and associateddefinitionssuch as pulse width, period, rise time, and fall time.The terminologyused for latch circuit inputs has been changed fromClear to Reset inorder to be compatible with Altera componentdescriptions.The definitionof a master/slave flip-flop has beenremoved as well. The discussion ofSchmitt trigger applications hasbeen improved to emphasize their rolein eliminating the effects ofnoise. The inner workings of the 555 timerare now explained, andsome improved timing circuits are proposed thatmake the device moreversatile. The HDL coverage of SR and D latcheshas been rewrittento use a more intuitive behavioral description, andthe coverage ofcounters has been modified to focus on structural tech-niquestointerconnect flip-flop blocks. Chapter 6. Signed numbers arecovered in more detail in this edition,particularly regarding signextension in 2s complement numbers andarithmetic overflow. A newcalculator hint simplifies negation of binarynumbers represented inhex. A number circle model is used to compareFIGURE P-4 Theicondenotes a correspondingsimulation file on theCD-ROM. 13.PREFACE xiiisigned and unsigned number formats and help students tovisualizeadd/subtract operation using both. Chapter 7. This chapterhas been heavily revised to emphasize synchro-nouscounter circuits.Simple ripple counters are still introduced to pro-videa basicunderstanding of the concept of counting and asynchronouscascading.After examining the limitations of ripple counters in Section2,synchronous counters are introduced in Section 3 and used in allsubse-quentexamples throughout the text. The IC counters presentedare the74160, 161, 162, and 163.These common devices offer anexcellent assort-mentof features that teach the difference betweensynchronous and asyn-chronouscontrol inputs and cascadingtechniques.The 74190 and 191 areused as an example of a synchronousup/down counter IC, further rein-forcingthe techniques required forsynchronous cascading. A new sectionis devoted to analysistechniques for synchronous circuits using JK and Dflip-flops.Synchronous design techniques now also include the


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